The minimally invasive procedure performs many conditions of diagnosing and treating with the help of a surgical telescope. There are two main types of surgical scope (Rigid & Flexible). Flexible endoscopes are needed to thoroughly examine the depths of tubular structures that turn corners (e.g.intestine, bronchial tree, and male canine urethra), but rigid endoscopes are more convenient for examining nontubular structures such as the abdominal cavity, thoracic cavity, or joint spaces, etc. A surgical telescope helps in providing a clear visualization of the infected area which is inside the body. Rigid endoscopes are made of metal tubes that contain a series of high-resolution optical glass rod lenses, and the light channel to allow visualization out of the axis of the telescope and increase the FOV (Field of view) by rotating the instrument. Direct visualization of a diseased area inside the body can be achieved by using a telescope through a small incision in the skin. Rigid endoscopes are commonly used in urology, gynecology, ENT, arthroscopy, endoscopic spine surgery, and general surgery. IMPORTANCE…


Laparoscopic cholecystectomy- the laparoscopic surgery for gallbladder removal

What is laparoscopic cholecystectomy?? Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy is a laparoscopic surgical procedure for removing Gallbladder. It is a minimally invasive surgery that is performed through minimally invasive surgery devices which involves small incisions to remove the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a digestive organ that is present just below the liver in the upper abdomen. The main function of the gallbladder is to store bile which helps in absorbing dietary fats. However, the gallbladder is not a compulsory organ of the digestive system and digestion of a high fiber diet can be easily done without the presence of Gallbladder as well. However, if your Gallbladder becomes inflamed, then it is very important to remove it. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy is one of the most popular and common types of surgery available for the removal of diseased Gallbladder. Reasons for performing laparoscopic cholecystectomy The main reason behind performing laparoscopic cholecystectomy and removing of the Gallbladder is due to the complications caused by the gallstones in the Gallbladder. The situation of having gallstones in the Gallbladder is known…

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Minimal invasive surgery for hemorrhoids

What are hemorrhoids?? Hemorrhoids are the medical condition in which an individual suffers from inflamed and swollen veins in the lowest part of anus and rectal. This medical condition is commonly known as piles by the general public. There are basically two types of hemorrhoids, internal hemorrhoids, and external hemorrhoids. Internal hemorrhoids are on the upper part inside your rectum. Whereas, external hemorrhoids are at the lowest part of your anus, under the skin around the anus. Hemorrhoids are becoming a very common disease, especially people who are in their middle age are at a high risk of suffering from the disease.   Symptoms of hemorrhoids Internal Bleeding while you poop, blood droplets on the toilet paper when you wipe and also in the toilet bowl. When the extra skin comes out from your anal opening, then this condition is called prolapse. This condition is painful, especially while passing the stool. Prevention Internal hemorrhoids can easily be manageable and less critical than external hemorrhoids. It can be managed within a few days…

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Get your sinuses ventilated: FESS

Sinuses are air spaces meant for help in humidify the air and enhance the quality of voice. Do you know recurrent heavy headedness, severe headache while lowering your head, recurrent infection of upper respiratory tract infection can be serious and very problematic? Sinusitis might be the cause. Mostly sinusitis is a rhinogenic in origin, ear infection, or dental infection. Our nose has cilia on its wall which helps in the movement of nasal secretion out of the nose. During nasal infection, these cilia function less efficiently result in the stasis of secretion and mucus in nasal sinus. What difficulties you will face when suffering sinusitis? Mostly symptoms are rhinogenic and usually same as cold. Following are the symptoms of sinusitis: 1) Nasal congestion or obstruction. 2) Pain on sinofacial region. 3) Headache while lowering or shaking it. 4) Mucopurulent nasal discharge. 5) A sensation of sneezing or multiple time sneezing. 5) The reduced smelling sense thus resulting in the inability to have flavors in food. 6) Change in voice.   How sinusitis…

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Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding (LAGB): obesity solution

  Life is becoming hectic these days with so many works to do and no time for ourselves. This is increasing obesity in people. Sedentary and time taking jobs doesn't leave time for cooking healthy home food and craving for fast foods increases. It may lead to other life-threatening conditions. If your weight is not reducing by dieting or workout, you may need bariatric surgery. Gastric Banding The adjustable band is put to bind the stomach below oesophagus so as to make a small pouch-like structure. The outlet to the distal part of the stomach is very narrow, this makes the obese person satiated for a long time. The small pouch gets full of a small amount of food. Thus, resulting in weight loss. It is scheduled for a limited time, a follow-up visit is needed at 6 weeks, or monthly, depending on the medical requirements.   Why might I need a laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding? LAGB is done to cure severe obesity, which is related to hypertension, high cholesterol, type 2…

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Have you ever experienced shoulder pain just after waking up in the morning? Or your shoulder gets stiff after 2-3 hours of mobilization. A condition of shoulder joint accompanied by stiffness, tenderness, and pain in your shoulder joint. This condition is also known as 'adhesive capsulitis'. Generally, it occurs due to inflammation of the synovial capsule. Most of the time the symptoms occur and get worsen. It takes about two to three years to get normal if left untreated.   How did it feel to have a frozen shoulder? Frozen shoulders develop gradually. It has 3 stages each stretches to 3-4 months. Freezing stage - The range of motion from the shoulder gets limited. Shoulder movements are painful. Frozen stage - Pain may get reduce but, your shoulder gets more stuff and movement gets more difficult from the shoulder joint. Thawing stage - Reliving stage pain reduced and range of motion improves. Pain may get worsen during night and interrupt sleep. Are you at risk of developing a frozen shoulder? The joint…



  Conceiving or getting news of carrying a life inside you is news of immense pleasure. But if it is holding for long and your body expels it out? You may question yourself!  Why you are not conceiving? Why is your womb not holding your baby? Your uterus may be diseased and not helping your pregnancy. The reason for this can be Endometriosis. What is Endometriosis? A disease condition in which the inner lining of the uterus called endometrium gets hypertrophied and come outside the uterus. Symptoms of Endometriosis? Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) Cramping of lower abdomen and pelvis you may experience lower back pain during menstruation. Painful intercourse. Pain during or after you become intimate happens in Endometriosis. Pain with motion or urination. More bleeding. Bleeding during menstruation or in-between two cycles of menstruation. Not conceiving or abortion. How it get diagnosed? Your doctor will ask for symptoms you are facing. Pelvic exam. Manually examining pelvis with finger to check pelvis abnormalities. Ultrasound. This test checks the inside of the organ for…



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Are you having absent periods? Getting cramps but not menstruating? And you have a history of frequent abortion, injury or any scaring. Then you may need to see a gynecologist. You may be suffering from ASHERMAN syndrome. What is known as asherman syndrome? Asherman syndrome is an uncommon uterine condition. In which scaring of the inner wall of uterus causing adhesion of anterior and posterior wall of the uterus. It may vary from mild to severe. Depending on areas of adhesion and type of adhesion (thick or thin). This condition leaves very little space in the uterus. Presented with what kind of symptoms? • absent periods or very light periods (amenorrhea or hypo menorrhea) • severe cramps during the period date but menstruating sparsely • unable to get pregnant What is the cause or risk factor of asherman syndrome? Near about 90 percent of Asherman syndrome cases occur due to dilation and curettage (D and C) procedures. D &C is usually done for missed abortion, elective abortion, retained placenta after delivery or…



Contraception is the requirement of today's world. Your gynecologist may help you in choosing methods of contraception best suited for you. These methods are different for different people. Efficiency is also different for every method. Its failure is an emergency as it may result in conceiving. One of the contraception failures is embedded IUDs (intrauterine devices) or missing thread. The original position of a copper T or hormone-releasing IUD is in the fundal wall of the uterine spaces. Its malpositioning is a failure and needs to be checked. What are IUDs? These are intrauterine devices placed in the uterine cavity by experts to prevent pregnancy. These are usually "T" shaped loaded with copper and hormones. Placement is generally at the fundus of the uterus. What is the malpositioning of IUDs? The IUD should be placed at the fundus of the uterus, with the arms of IUD fully separated and stretched toward the uterine cornua. The vertical portion of the “T” should extend straight in the uterine cavity. Malpositioned IUDs may be described…



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Most of the time a person suffers from intense pain in knee while playing any sports or doing heavy work.  Generally, people injure their knees is by hurting ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) present in the knee. ACL is the band of connective tissue that joins and binds bones together in the knee. It maintains the stability of the knee. You may tear or stretch ACL when you suddenly change your position or with sudden turning, running or jumping. It makes it difficult to put pressure on the knee.   How Does It Happen? Sportsmen and Athletes very commonly injure their ACL with sudden break and sharp change in directions. Playing soccer, football, tennis, basketball or volleyball, or doing gymnastics are having more chances of twisting knees by mistake when opposing. Persons' speed and way of turning knee both affect the ACL tear. How does it feel? Many notice sound from knee when they get their ACL injured. PAIN- pain depends on the grade of injury. The total tear gives you intense pain.…